In 3GPP TS 38.104 [10], the TAE ranges between 65ns to 260ns depending on the feature and on the CP duration but is only valid for colocated/ intra-site deployments where ∆Tprop~0. When it comes to 5G technology, many providers have been using the 5G cells which are also called nodes. The split option is denominated as 7-2x and it is an intra-PHY split – that is, some parts of the 3GPP PHY layer are implemented in the DU and others in the RU [9]. This prevents interference between different networks using adjacent frequency bands or between national borders, because it enables the phase alignment of the radio frames generated by different networks with overlapping areas. Pioneering customers select us as their 5G partner and we are first with commercial live networks in four continents. The product, which leverages the Nokia Smart Node portfolio leverages Qualcomm® 5G RAN platform … Guard periods are used for isolation with a configurable total guard time expressed as an integer number of symbols. History Foundation. Synchronization requirements related to communication over the radio interface can be divided into two categories: TDD cell phase synchronization (Tsync) and communication features based on coordinated transmission or reception from multiple Transmission Reception Points (TRxPs). The duration of the guard period needs to cater for four effects: Since guard periods are not used for communication, they reduce the time ratio when spectrum resources can be used. Thanks to our dual-mode core solution - and its embedded API management module - both 4G and 5G core network APIs can be combined into customized service APIs to be exposed to partners and application functions in a controlled and secure way. Ericsson is a technology leader in 5G. Ericsson ERIC recently announced that its 5G Radio Access Network and Core products and solutions are driving Orange Spain’s 5G services in Madrid and Barcelona. ​. Ericsson's core network and automation solutions provide the capability and flexibility to meet new services, business models & use cases around 5G & IoT. While there is no change to fundamental synchronization requirements in the move from 4G to 5G, wider use of TDD radio technology and growing demand for new network architectures that support demanding 5G use cases have made the need for … It is an evolution of our powerful virtualized portfolio, designed for cloud deployment, consisting of our Cloud Packet Core, Cloud Unified Data Management (UDM) and Policy and Signaling Controller products. Figure 1: Synchronization in new network scenarios. With Ericsson’s dual-mode 5G Core, software probes are built-in. The solution also includes services exposure capabilities to explore new business opportunities in the industry and in-build software probes and an integrated firewall to increase 5G network security.​ It enables CSPs to: What can Ericsson dual-mode 5G Core do for you? To limit the effects of asymmetry and packet delay variation that could be created by the network nodes (switches and routers, for example), IEEE 1588 has specified the “boundary clock” and “transparent clock” functions with event message timestamping in the hardware layer. Download your guide to building a cloud native 5G Core. Read our guide Building a new world - evolving from EPC to 5G Core. He also contributes actively to ITU-T SG15 Q13 and IEEE 1588. After first joining Ericsson in 1997 to … In 3GPP New Radio (NR), cell phase synchronization is specified as 3µs [2] – that is, the same as for LTE. The capabilities of 5G wireless access extend far beyond previous generations of mobile communications. Assisted partial timing support (APTS), which concerns the use of PTP as a backup for GNSS, is an important implementation of the G.8275.2 profile. Two PTP profiles have been defined for the use of PTP in telecom – G.8275.1 (PTP with full timing support from the network) and G.8275.2 (PTP with partial timing support from the network) [8]. The adoption of cloud-native technology and the new 5G Core architecture will impact other parts of the core network as infrastructure, voice services, automation and orchestration, operations and management and security. Some relate to combining spectrum assets, thereby allowing total higher aggregated bandwidth and throughput (carrier aggregation, dual connectivity and so on), while others relate to improving link performance at the cell edge (variants of coordinated multi-point operation, for example). In these cases, the delay asymmetries and packet delay variation present in PTP-unaware networks would make it impossible to meet the stringent accuracy and stability requirements. Accurate and reliable synchronization has long been a fundamental prerequisite for the correct operation of telecommunications networks. Alongside 5G new radio (NR), 5G Core is a fundamental cornerstone of 5G networks. Ruffini holds a M.Sc. As noted in the bottom of the figure, ∆Tprop_UE1 and ∆Tprop_UE4 are less than ∆Tprop_UE2, which is less than ∆Tprop_UE3. The synchronization aspects of fronthaul networks are also addressed by the O-RAN Alliance. For the same delay spread, UE1 and UE4 can tolerate larger TAE than UE2 and UE3. The distribution of time-phase and frequency synchronization has been addressed in several ITU-T recommendations [8]. Moreover, the time error can be better estimated during holdover, making it possible to take consequent actions per service (TDD, for example). Transport-based solutions, in which synchronization is distributed over the transport network, rely on two key technologies: frequency synchronization over the physical layer (synchronous Ethernet) and frequency and time synchronization over the packet layer (PTP). He is an expert at Ericsson Research working on synchronization and transport solutions. Ericsson is a technology leader in 5G. To that end, 5G enabled networks need to be designed from an end-to-end perspective, beyond mobile access. The RANs use different sources, often in combination, to provide synchronization characteristics to match the network use case and services delivered. ​, Currently, the vast majority of commercial 5G deployments are based on NR non-standalone (NSA) technology which uses existing LTE radio access for signaling between devices and the network, and Evolved Packet Core (EPC) networks which are enhanced to support 5G NSA. Communications Service Providers (CSPs) and Enterprises often struggle with the complexity created by successive mobility generations, packetization, and cloud. This can be done by simply setting API parameters as opposed to running complex network integration projects, allowing for multiple network operations towards IoT devices previously considered impossible or too expensive. While many applications benefit from accurate time synchronization, it is important to realize that high time accuracy over large areas can be very costly. The fundamental technologies to address these requirements come from the GNSS, which provides the basic technology for a time synchronization master, enabling global distribution of a UTC-traceable reference. The challenge Increase the port capacity and safety with A solution is considered to be RAN based if it can fulfill the synchronization requirements of the RAN network without synchronization support from the transport network. In Ooredoo Qatar’s network, Ericsson Radio System has facilitated a fast nationwide 5G coverage. In practice, a base station with a Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) receiver fulfils the requirement on UTC traceability as specified by the 3GPP. He joined Ericsson in 2005 and has served as a member of the ORAN Working Group 4 (Open Fronthaul) with standardization since Ericsson joined the ORAN Alliance in 2019. The path delay estimation assumes that the delay of the two transmission directions is symmetric. Ericsson ERIC recently inked a deal for an undisclosed amount with China Telecom and China Unicom to offer core products and solutions for 5G … A toolkit lets integrated operators run their mobile and fixed-line operations on a common 5G core. You’ve probably heard about advanced 5G use cases which, thanks to ultra-low network latency and very high throughputs, will revolutionize businesses and the day-to-day lives of consumers. Ericsson leads the implementation of 5G worldwide, partly through the use of massive MIMO technology. Longer holdover periods can be achieved when GNSS is combined with other technologies that provide a stable timing reference (traceable to PRTC). Coordination may also occur between NR and LTE. OAS is based on round-trip time measurement similar to PTP, with the advantage that the asymmetries are generally small over the air, making it possible to achieve good time alignment. Ericsson is a technology leader in 5G. However, during technology shifts and business transformations it becomes crucial. This includes multiple operators in both the US and South Korea, as well as in Switzerland, Australia and UAE. The Ericsson Packet Core Firewall provides a fusion of user plane security and advanced security functions. Depending on the required positioning accuracy, these may not always result in cost-efficient solutions. Verizon and Sprint share what comes next on their core network transition from 4G to 5G. Examples of these capabilities include very high data rates, spectral efficiency and mobility requirements, ultra-low latency, ultra-high reliability, and very low device cost and energy consumption. While there is no change to fundamental synchronization requirements in the move from 4G to 5G, wider use of TDD radio technology and growing demand for new network architectures that support demanding 5G use cases have made the need for time synchronization more critical in 5G. Network synchronization is key to optimal radio network performance. However, to unlock 5G’s full potential NR standalone (SA) and 5G Core (5GC) is needed. Check the latest information on our 5G agreements. In this case, the distribution of a single time reference is sufficient. Total cost of ownership (TCO) is always a hot topic. 5G devices will likely be introduced towards the end of 2018. Finding the right balance between timing accuracy, availability and cost is key to making services successful. In this context, over-the-air synchronization (OAS) is a powerful tool. UTC traceability does not imply that UTC time is recovered or that leap seconds are used; in fact, the 3GPP also requires the use of continuous time without leap seconds. This includes industries such as automotive, logistics, public safety, media, and manufacturing. The connectivity needs of all industries can be addressed by four multi-purpose IoT segments, which efficiently co-exist in one 5G network. Since any source of asymmetry results in error in the time synchronization distribution, the asymmetry must either be known and compensated for or sufficiently small to be negligible. For example, 1m corresponds to a synchronization accuracy of around 3ns, which is orders of magnitude more stringent than other radio network synchronization requirements. Over-the-air synchronization (OAS) methods provide an attractive synchronization alternative in this case. Each Network Function (NF) is formed by a combination of small pieces of software code called as microservices. Operational Knowledge of Multi-Vendor transmission Nodes - Ericsson / Nokia / Huawei / Ceragon Telecom equipment. in electrical engineering from Lund University in Sweden. ​Download our 5G core programmability paper to learn more. In early 2018 Ericsson has launched the industry’s first 5G NR-capable ra-dio, called Ericsson AIR 6468. OAS uses timing information sent over the radio interface between neighboring base stations. Their challenges include: How to profit from opportunity with a flexible core that embraces openness and the new ecosystem that will spring from the 5G wireless access provides wireless connectivity for a wide range of new applications and use cases. The baseband function in a base station is split into two logical units: a CU hosting the higher-layer protocols and a DU handling the lower layers to the user equipment (UE). What matters is the relative frame timing alignment at the receiver. The MRTD consists of a base-station relative time alignment error (TAE) and an RF propagation delay difference (∆Tprop). Ericsson Addendum: According to Ericsson’s latest Mobility Report, published earlier this week, global 5G subscriptions will exceed 2.6bn within the next six years and by that time Ericsson predicts that 5G will cover 65 percent of the world.It also believes that total mobile subscriptions, including to previous generation networks, will reach 8.9bn from 8bn over the next six years. It is the first mobile technology designed for machines and systems in addition to people. With Ericsson's 5G platform you can: Evolve your network from 4G to … Ericsson is a technology leader in 5G. 5G makes it possible to serve several applications that have previously been supported either by wireline or by non-standard radio technologies, such as Critical Internet of Things (IoT) and Industrial Automation IoT services [1] for which time synchronization is fundamental. To address the synchronization needs in these scenarios, the O-RAN specification defines different synchronization topologies. As shown in Figure 4, a fairly typical 5G mobile network can combine methods like GNSS and OAS at base station sites, time and frequency distribution via the transport network, and redundancy and holdover functions in the nodes. Industrial automation is just one example of a use case that requires accurate timing and is likely to generate additional synchronization requirements in the near future. Another important aspect of the PTP network planning is time error budget planning, which depends on the dimension of the network and the accuracy of the PTP-aware network elements. The new 5GC architecture addresses the needs of not just today, but the future – raising mobile communications to unprecedented levels and making it possible to digitalize entire societies. A recent report by Ericsson [1] shows that "A small majority of European and North American operators believed 5G will be more consumer-driven, while a similar majority in Asia Pacific and Central and Latin America expected 5G to be more … Possible future regulations of national authorities may also be relevant. To meet the TDD “relative” synchronization requirement that cell phase synchronization must be better than 3µs, the accuracy of the time synchronization reference at the input to the base station must always be better than ±1.1µs when measured against a standard time reference. Services with special accuracy or availability demands should be carefully analyzed to minimize costs. GNSS satellites visibility is important for proper operation. Distributing time synchronization over the same transport network infrastructure used for user data has the benefits of providing the same level of robustness and redundancy for timing as for the user traffic itself. 5G Core enables new ways of achieving challenging business and operational goals. In short, 5GC is a fundamental piece of the 5G network to: What are the key characteristics and benefits from 5G Core (5GC) and New Radio (NR) standalone? In 5G networks the situation is different because time and phase synchronization is more often needed compared with previous generations of radio networks, due to factors such as wider use of TDD or the need for coordination between NR and LTE. This is particularly relevant for cases that require GNSS redundancy (to protect against jamming or spoofing events, for example), where the distribution of timing over the transport network as a complement to a local GNSS receiver should be considered. While the introduction of 5G did not cause any fundamental change to radio network synchronization requirements, some applications may put more stringent local accuracy requirements on the synchronization of the 5G nodes. The basic concept is to distribute time synchronization from the PTP “grandmaster” to the leaf PTP clocks, using PTP messages. GNSS services include GPS, BDS (the BeiDou Navigation Satellite System) and Galileo [6], and are offered by several space agencies. Still others relate to specific services like Multimedia Broadcast Multicast Service over a Single Frequency Network. Rather, the required TAE would depend on actual deployment, its RF characteristics and the UEs’ relative position between the TRxPs, as shown in Figure 3. Redundancy is achieved through a PTP network that is fed from geographically redundant T-GMs and distributes timing over the same physically redundant topologies that are used for user traffic. TSNs in industrial applications generally require the distribution of time synchronization to the industrial subnetworks used for functionality such as robot control or autonomous vehicles. Frequency synchronization in these reference networks is carried over the physical layer (typically using synchronous Ethernet). It establishes reliable and secure connectivity to the network and access to its services, determines the quality of service and enforces it through policy allowing services differentiation and handles wide area mobility throughout the network. Countless devices and services will also use 5G such as self-driving cars, remote surgery and other innovations as well. These segments are Massive IoT, Broadband IoT, Critical IoT and Industrial Automation IoT. Network synchronization is key to optimal radio network performance. It is the ‘business end’ of mobile broadband and IoT networks. in telecommunication engineering from Sapienza University of Rome, Italy. In this new architecture each Network Function (NF) offers one or more services to other NFs via Application Programming Interfaces (API). Knowledge of Transmission servers (M2000, SoEM) & switches. Here, Ericsson´s 5G platform plays an instrumental role, in helping you build a better 5G network in a better way. The protocol is based on a two-way exchange of timing messages [7]. T-Mobile US, Inc. TMUS recently announced multi-billion-dollar deals with Ericsson ERIC and Nokia NOK to continue expanding its nationwide 5G network. Also, cars will use 5G technology for different services. Industrial automation scenarios often involve multiple timing domains. Only then will your network perform at scale, adapt at pace and unlock new revenue streams. Ericsson’s dual-mode 5G Core is built on cloud-native, microservices-based technology and combines Evolved Packet Core (EPC) and 5G Core (5GC) network functions into a common multi-access and cloud-native platform that supports 5G and as well as previous generations for optimized footprint and TCO efficiency. That is, MRTD = TAE + ∆Tprop. the deviation in frame start timing between cells must be below a maximum value specified as cell phase synchronization accuracy in the 3GPP. The authors would like to thank Jonas Edstam, Anders Höglund, Mats Höglund, Gábor Kovács and Mårten Wahlström for their contributions to this article. Prior to 5G, the 3 rd Generation Partnership Project (3GPP) focused entirely on mobile networks. Ericsson Internal | 2018-02-21 Technology used 4G/5G, IoT, Augmented Reality Expected or delivered results Enable, through a 5G network planned to operate in the port of Livorno area, augmented reality applications for improving efficiency and safety in goods handling in the port area. An efficient synchronization solution that addresses all relevant scenarios requires the support of a toolbox of synchronization methods that are implemented in the RAN domain (GNSS and OAS), the transport domain (such as PTP), or both. In contrast, features in the “MRTD without CP relation” category allow a relatively large part for ∆Tprop and thereby more flexible deployments, such as heterogeneous networks. The RU is the main user of synchronization and it may also be synchronized by a timing reference generated directly at the radio site. The best control over the synchronization network architecture will be achieved by rolling out PTP from the lower part of the transport network, with GNSS receivers and T-GM functionality in base stations or routers, and be extended to include T-GMs that are higher up in the network when feasible. Ericsson's 5G radio prototype, which provides 5G wireless network access, has been widely deployed for real-world testing in the U.S., South Korea, Japan, … Continuous delivery and deployment of software is helping Swisscom turn on 5G. Ericsson Packet Core, are currently looking for a software developer to strengthen our team and community in one of Ericsson's industry-leading product that is a part of Product Development Group (PDG-Mobility). 5G will be offered through 5G towers but not only. has worked with timing and synchronization distribution within the RAN base station and with air transmission accuracy for 20 years. allocate margin for cell phase synchronization errors (Tsync). Frequency synchronization based on packet protocols like Network Time Protocol (NTP) or PTP using the G.8265.1 profile (in a PTP-unaware network) has proven to be the most cost-efficient solution in LTE-FDD networks, where frequency synchronization alone was often sufficient. Discover more on how our software approach will help you stay competitive. Get to the core of 5G – a cloud native dual-mode 5G Core that combines EPC and 5GC network functions into a common cloud native platform for efficient TCO and smooth migration to 5G. Nokia has announced that its Smart Node portfolio of All-in-One base stations for 5G indoor use will be based on chipsets from powered by Qualcomm Technologies Inc. He is currently an active contributor to ITU-T SG15 Q13 (serving as rapporteur) and other relevant synchronization standardization bodies, as well as serving as the chair of the International Timing and Sync Forum (ITSF). The same architecture can also be used to support the industrial application by distributing the timing of the 5G network to the TSN [5]. When the 5G experience is everything, it’s crucial to deliver on customer expectations from day one. For many features, what matters more than anything else is the relative time error between neighboring base stations. 5G capable networks are now a reality around the globe, however, these new 5G networks will co-exist side by side with 4G ones for many years, while at the same time efficiencies need to be improved in order to capture new opportunities.​ Ericsson’s dual-mode 5G Core is built on cloud-native, microservices-based technology and combines Evolved Packet Core (EPC) and 5G Core (5GC) network functions into a common multi-access and cloud-native platform that supports 5G and as well as previous generations for optimized footprint and TCO efficiency. In particular, these recommendations define reference synchronization networks, where the synchronization is generated by time synchronization masters or PRTCs, which are typically based on GNSS technology and where the reference timing signal is carried across a network of clocks. The new 5GC architecture called as Service-Based Architecture (SBA), is built using IT network principles and cloud native technology. joined Ericsson in 1993. joined Ericsson in 1997 and currently serves as a system developer. He holds an M. Sc. New network architectures imply new approaches to addressing the various synchronization needs. Several CSPs have partnered with us. He holds an M.Sc. For colocated D and E, the TAE of D-E is generally less than the TAE of A-B. The two main RAN-based solutions are GNSS-based synchronization and over-the-air synchronization (OAS). There are two requirements for time domain isolation: For TDD synchronicity and interference, the critical points are when switching between transmission and reception, as shown in Figure 2. With the advent of 5G, several experts in the industry got together to define how the core network should evolve to support the needs of 5G New Radio (NR) and the advanced use cases to be enabled by it. Ericsson CTO Erik Ekudden’s view on the importance of synchronization in 5G. This includes using Precision Time Protocol (PTP) and radio interface-based methods to synchronize distributed radio units in the evolved RAN architecture, where the upper and lower parts of the 5G New Radio (NR) RAN are separated in the different logical units: the centralized unit (CU), the distributed unit (DU) and the radio unit (RU). Accuracy of GNSS compared with other synchronization sources allows for comparatively longer holdover periods reuse of existing networks! 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