2 Answers. They were the supreme commanders of the army. Two Kings of Sparta. That mythologizing extended even to place names. A dyarchy, rather than a monarchy, effectively divided the strength of the kings and introduced a permanent tension and state of competition between the two houses. Kings of Sparta (Dictionary of Government). In peacetime they were responsible for the cult and to some legal issues. 2 kings. By Bruno Currie Page 245, A Classical Dictionary By John Lemprière. How old did you have to be to be in the Council of Elders? They were involved in certain religious or cultic activities, members of the priesthood of Zeus Lacedaemon (a cult group based honoring the mythical king of Laconia) and Zeus Ouranos (Uranus, the primal sky god). Page. Spartan kings had royal reputation, first places in all, holding the biggest portion of lands. Agiad people were treated as a tribe, presumed to have descended from an ancestor bearing its name. Sparta in time developed a system of dual kingship (two kings ruling at once). There was an Assembly. Answer Save. Their power was counter-balanced by the elected board of ephors (who may only serve a single one-year term). At the time of Agis I’s rule, Spartans were looking outwards, creating colonies in Asia Minor. Sparta had two kings, or basileis. A list of Spartan kings and an insight into why the two kings became an institution in Sparta. Called Kings but elected. 2 Answers. Sparta ran on a system of democracy, therefore it had two kings who shared responsibilities. The ancient Greek city of Sparta was ruled by two kings, one from each of … During the 5th century BC Sparta was very powerful. How many kings ruled Sparta? For one, Sparta had two kings. He must have been a king, who founded a dynasty of his name. At Thermopylae 1 was on the field the other was in Sparta. The kings would lead armies into battle and attend religious ceremonies. 5. Lv 7. In time of peace, power was concentrated in a Senate of 30 members. Page, A New Classical Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography, Mythology, and Geography, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=List_of_kings_of_Sparta&oldid=995003059, Articles containing Ancient Greek (to 1453)-language text, Short description with empty Wikidata description, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, Briefly deposed while in exile avoiding trial, last Agiad, deposed by the Eurypontid Lycurgus, Actually an Agiad; installed by Cleomenes III, deposes the Agiad Agesipolis III and ruled alone, first regent for Pelops, then usurper, claiming descent from the Eurypontid king Demaratus, last known king of Sparta from Heraclid dynasty, The Cyclopædia, Volume 20. There were five ephors who were elected annually and swore fealty to Sparta rather than the kings. Disallowed the Peloponnesus, Hercules embarked on a life of wandering. A Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography and Mythology: This page was last edited on 18 December 2020, at 17:53. Sparta was ruled by two hereditary kings. The dynasty is named after its third king Eurypon. The Constitution was effected in the following way. The Assembly had men over the age of 30. The Lelegid were the descendants of Lelex (a back-formation), ancestor of the Leleges, a Pelasgian tribe inhabiting the Eurotas valley before the Greeks, who, according to the mythological descent, amalgamated with the Greeks. In addition to the kings, there were five ephors (magistrates) that were elected from aristocratic families. Agis I lived on the cusp of Sparta’s recorded history, at a time when the division between fact and legend is unclear. This want of information was attributed by most of the Greeks to the stability of the Spartan constitution, which had lasted unchanged from the days of Lycurgus. Pg, A Prosopography of Lacedaemonians, Part 396. Sparta ran on a system of democracy, therefore it had two kings who shared responsibilities. The common people had no say Clarification Sparta had two kings. The purpose of having two kings was to … It is odd, however, that the number two should have been so permanently entrenched. Sparta in time developed a system of dual kingship (two kings ruling at once). Sparta was unusual among the Greek city-states in that it maintained its kingship past the Archaic age. N.S. 0 0. epic username. Priests were people outside of the regnal pair and neither of the kings was considered sacred — although they could enable contact with the gods, they were never interpreters. Sparta was ruled by two kings and a Council of Elders. A Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography and Mythology: William Smith (Ed.) Sparta is located in the region of Laconia, in the south-eastern Peloponnese. 4. According to tradition, the two lines, the Agiads and Eurypontids, were respectively descended from the twins Eurysthenes and Procles, the … Each year the ephors, or magistrates, chose the 300 best hoplites in Sparta to become the hippeis—elite soldiers who formed the king’s private guard. Kingship was hereditary. Sparta was a constitutional monarchy, made up of the kings, advised by and (supposedly) controlled by a college of ephors; a council of elders called the Gerousia; and an assembly, known as the Apella or Ecclesia. Answer Save. Having two kings share power was fairly common in several Bronze Age Indo-European societies; they shared power but had different roles. Gill is a Latinist, writer, and teacher of ancient history and Latin. Intended to stop any king trying to overstay his wellcome. The Ecclesia was made up of every Spartan male full citizen who had attained his 30th birthday; it was led by the ephors and they supposedly made decisions on when to go to war and who would be the commander in chief. The Atreidai (Latin Atreidae) belong to the Late Bronze Age, or the Mycenaean Period. Taygetus (2,407 m) and to the east by Mt. Ancient Greeks named males after their fathers, producing a patronymic with the infix -id-; for example, the sons of Atreus were the Atreids. This List of Kings of Sparta details the important rulers of the ancient Greek city-state of Sparta in the Peloponnese. Spartans had a very unique political system consisting of two kings who took care of the military affairs, region improvements, such as roads and bridges, and were important religious figures. With roots going back to its founding myth, Sparta had not one, but two royal houses: the Eurypontid and the Agiad. Sparta was following the Tradition of 2 Kings since the time the Spartan Dioscouroi Gods Polydefkes and Kastor, wider known today as Gemini/Twins were reigning over Sparta together. The oligarchy had two kings, they weren't very powerful. Reputedly founded in the 9th century bce with a rigid oligarchic constitution, the state of Sparta for centuries retained as lifetime corulers two kings who arbitrated in time of war. It was even more unusual in that it had two kings simultaneously, who were called the archagetai,[n 1] coming from two separate lines. Why did Sparta have two kings? There was an assembly of citizens, but this did not have the power of the citizen assembly in democratic Athens. ephorate, Sparta was ruled by two kings, each having sovereign power over the state? Favorite Answer. By Alfred S. Bradford. Although there are lists of the earlier purported Kings of Sparta, there is little evidence for the existence of any kings before the middle of the sixth century BC or so. Sparta was ruled by two kings. The kings belonged to the Council of Elders (Gerousia) which had 5 Ephors along with nobles who were over 60 years of age. The Agiad line was regarded as being senior to the Eurypontid line.[3]. Indeed the history of classical Sparta is rife with examples of the royal houses butting heads politically. The kings also performed the duties of the priests. This was due to her army, which was feared by other Greeks. [4] The kings' firstborn sons, as heirs apparent, were the only Spartan boys expressly exempt from the Agoge; however, they were allowed to take part if they so wished, and this endowed them with increased prestige when they ascended the throne. Dual Kingship in Ancient Sparta By Georgia Connelly (King of Sparta), Josie Copley (King of Sparta) and Eloise Dwyer (Poor Peasant)..... Benefits of Dual Kingship What is Sparta? There was also a Council of Elders (Gerousia), each member of which was over the age of 60 and could serve for life. Sparta was unusual among the Greek city-states in that it maintained its kingship past the Archaic age. Their power was counter-balanced by the elected board of ephors (who may only serve a single one-year term). Two kings ruled the city, but a 28-member 'council of elders' limited their powers. Pindar and the cult of heroes. Although not much is known about the kings — note how few of the kings listed below even have regnal dates — ancient historians have pieced together general information about how the government worked. Sparta was ruled by two hereditary kings. The two kings were more like military commanders and generals. Robert Drews (1983: 81) Both kings would ensure that one king would not abuse or obtain to much power, that they could cause hard to the state. The kings held little judicial or domestic power in Sparta, but each was considered an equal and supreme commander of the army during wartime, and had the power to declare war and lead the army in battle. A Spartan king named Aristodemus had twin sons. The council consisted of, apart from the two kings with the most influence, twenty-eight people of rich families over the age of sixty. The Lacedaemonids contain Greeks from the age of legend, now treated as being the Bronze Age in Greece. The dynasty was named after its second king, Agis. Division of power, internal and external. Spartan kings inherited their roles, a job filled by the leader of each family. Sparta was insignificant during IR timeframe and already got a mission tree, unique events, and unique units due to 300 fanboys. Oligarchy– Sparta always had two kings, the state was ruled by two hereditary kings of the Agiad and Eurypontid families (probably the two gens had great merits in the conquest of Laconia). Not shown is Lycurgus, the lawgiver, a younger son of the Eurypontids, who served a brief regency either for the infant Charilaus (780–750 BC) or for Labotas (870–840 BC) the Agiad. Two kings ruled the city, but a 28-member 'council of elders' limited their powers. The city was ruled by two kings, and a 28-member Council of Elders limited their power. Like Mycenaean kings in Greece, the Spartans had a political leader (the Eurypontidae kings) and a war leader (the Agaidai kings). High state policy decisions were discussed by this council who could then … I need the information for a History assignment. As they both claimed descent from Hercules, the kings were considered above the other Spartiates by virtue of their leadership positio… Dual Kingship = Two Kings Sparta • founded sometime around 900 BC. This is a real shame because Sparta had its own unique political system with two, count them, two kings sitting on the throne at once. 10 years ago. The fact that 2 Spartan kings are not represented in-game is an unimportant issue IMO. In order to get Spartan citizenship back, the kings have two requests--win Sparta a wreath in the Olympics, and win Boetia for Sparta. It is evident from Plutarch's; "Life of Lycurgus", that a lawgiver known by the name of Lycurgus derived the Spartan laws from the oracle at Delphi, which outlined how Sparta was to function. These kings working in partnership would share their duties, and by the nature of the dual leadership would keep the other king honest. The kings held little judicial or domestic power in Sparta, but each was considered an equal and supreme commander of the army during wartime, and had the power to declare war and lead the army in battle. There are way too many other regions that got 0 content since launch and deserve more attention. Spartan kings received a recurring posthumous hero cult like that of the Doric kings of Cyrene. As per the peculiar provisions of the Constitution of Sparta two kings ruled over the country at a time. Democratic Spartan Constitution. The Constitution of Sparta had fair organs-the King, Jerusia, Appella and Ephor. The Achaean League annexed Sparta in 192 BC. Of the internal development of Sparta down to this time but little is recorded. For royal houses, the patronymic was formed from the name of the founder or of an early significant figure of a dynasty. Cynuria is said to have been colonized by. Five ephors, chosen annually by popular election, had the main power. The Spartan kings as Heracleidae claimed descent from Heracles, who through his mother was descended from Perseus. Spartan political system was a combination of monarchy (kings), oligarchy (Gerousia) and democracy (ephoroi, ephors). 0 0. epic username. Parnon (1,935 m). The ancient Greek city of Sparta was ruled by two kings, one from each of the two founding families, Agaidai and Eurypontidae. Agesilaus II, distinguished king of Sparta, being asked which was the greater virtue, valor or justice, replied: "Unsupported by justice, valor is good for nothing; and if all men were just, there would be no need of valor". If the descent was not known or was scantily known, the Greeks made a few standard assumptions based on their cultural ideology. As the name of Atreus is attested in Hittite documents, this dynasty may well be protohistoric. Their role in Spartan life was shouldering certain magisterial and juridical responsibilities. The fact that 2 Spartan kings are not represented in-game is an unimportant issue IMO. We have all heard about kingdoms divided between two princes, or about co-regencies of father and son, but one can hardly visualize a single state ruled by two sovereigns. They were presumed to have been named after kings and divinities. Relevance? Ancient Sparta was built on the banks of the Eurotas River, the largest river of Laconia, which provided it with a source of fresh water.The valley of the Eurotas is a natural fortress, bounded to the west by Mt. Sparta was insignificant during IR timeframe and already got a mission tree, unique events, and unique units due to 300 fanboys. In his Histories, Herodotus explains to us how this dual kingship came about. Why did Sparta have two kings? She has been featured by NPR and National Geographic for her ancient history expertise. The dynasties themselves, however, were named after the twins' grandsons, the kings Agis I and Eurypon, respectively. King was succeeded by his the first born son after he came to power. They made decisions about war and peace. They were there to call up the army and receive foreign envoys. It was even more unusual in that it had two kings simultaneously, who were called the archagetai,[1][n 1] coming from two separate lines. Sparta was a dinarchy, under the rule of two consecutive kings along with nine 'ephors' and a council. This meant that the kings were not related to each other, but their titles were passed down to their sons. 7 Points to Know About Ancient Greek Government, Politics and the Political System of the Ancient Maya, The Ancient Spartans Had a Murderous Secret Police, Biography of Helen of Troy, Cause of the Trojan War, The Thirty Tyrants After the Peloponnesian War, King Leonidas of Sparta and the Battle at Thermopylae, M.A., Linguistics, University of Minnesota. According to tradition, the two lines, the Agiads and Eurypontids, were respectively descended from the twins Eurysthenes and Procles, the descendants of Heracles who supposedly conquered Sparta two generations after the Trojan War. By Abraham Rees. Two Kings of Sparta Of the internal development of Sparta down to this time but little is recorded. This List of Kings of Sparta details the important rulers of the ancient Greek city-state of Sparta in the Peloponnese. A ruling family might thus have a number of dynastic names; for example, Agis I named the Agiads, but he was a Heraclid and so were his descendants. Within this Delphic Oracle it was stated that Sparta was to have two kings Careful there Ancient Sparta … Sparta had a highly unusual system of government. T… The kings were automatic members of the Gerousia, the council of 28 elders picked for life plus the two kings. Now that reminds us of oligarchic government. The council governed the city, declared wars, supervised the kings, and could propose laws. Lv 7. Although this made them relatively weak kings and there was always input from the other pieces of the government on most of the decisions they made, most of the kings were fierce and acted independently most of the time. 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